Fantasmagorie, the first real cartoon, dating from 1908, by Émile Cohl. Was apparently in tribute to an art movement I’ve never heard of called the Incoherents, which made Duchamp look like a total poseur (that’s from 1883).
Quite surreal. Funny how the earliest examples of work in some medium seem to include later avant-garde elements (e.g. the animator being in the film).